Epidemic Disease- What Does It Mean and Some Major Examples?

People frequently get confused with the words epidemic and pandemic. The epidemic is definitely an outbreak of the disease that spreads at a jet speed and impacts many lives. You will see an enormous increase in the cases in the those who are prone to the epidemic disease. The rise in the number of cases is never predicted. The outbreak could be geographically or perhaps in the city.

The epidemic may be the term used to describe an illness which has grown in huge numbers and it is out of control. Once the disease is called a crisis means it's spread like wildfire. The epidemic that shook the world is swine flu in 1918, measles in 1981 to 1991, and recently in 2023 whopping cough.

The infection would spread to some huge population very quickly. The epidemic would spread locally or a region than its normal expectancy. It is easy to specify the city or region that would be affected due to the epidemic.

The epidemic disease need not require being contagious. It is an unusual occurrence of disease or perhaps a health-related behavior locally or perhaps a region.

What are the causes of epidemic disease?

There are many factors for the cause of infectious diseases, and handful of them include:

  • There is a sudden change in the host population due to the increase of stress on the vector species.
  • Change in the pathogen genetically, or there is a new pathogen that experienced the host population.
  • The epidemic increases using the reduction in the immunity of the new or existing pathogen below its equilibrium.
  • The outbreak from the epidemic is a result of the contaminated water and poor sanitation in various areas. These are the places in which the population and animals would migrate to another place and carry the disease.
  • There might be seasonal epidemics. The very best example may be the whopping cough that occurs in the spring season, and also the measles would outbreak in the winter or in March. The influenza is really a flu that will badly affect the respiratory tract, and the patients have a sore throat. This kind of disease is caused in the winter months.
  • The disease would spread through infection for every person, or it can happen even if a pet or perhaps a person gets in contact or in the environment.
  • An outbreak also occurs when individuals experience radioactive chemicals and harmful pollutants. The very best illustration of this really is Minamata disease, that takes a toll around the lives of many those who are subjected to mercury.
  • The epidemic can also occur because of disasters such as floods, storms, droughts, and so on.

Different types of epidemics

Common source epidemic disease

The common source epidemics occur when exposed to infectious things. It can be because of the contamination of air, water, food, and soil because of harmful pollutants and toxic chemicals.

The best example of the kind of epidemic is Minamata disease, that has occurred due to the outbreak of Bhopal gas in India. The condition attacked the humans once they ate the fish that has high amounts of methyl mercury.

There are a couple of types of common source epidemics. These include:

Point source epidemic

It is also referred to as a single-source epidemic. It happens when you're subjected to the epidemic disease agent, and also the cases would increase in just an incubation period. The best example of this kind of epidemic is food poisoning.

There are a rise and decrease in the event for this reason epidemic. It may be explosive, and also the clusters would rise in a short while.

Continuous epidemic

If the epidemic is persisting after one incubation period, then it's termed a continuing epidemic. The condition would spread at a rapid pace. The exposure would be in the same source as well as for quite a long time. However, it may be continuous or intermittent.

The perfect example of the is the prostitute, who's the key reason for that gonorrhea outbreak. The person can infect others inside a certain period. Another illustration of a continuing epidemic is Legionnaire’s disease, which attacked in Illinois.

It is really a respiratory disease that would be a continuous outbreak. It continued after one incubation period, but there are no infected cases found in the individuals who arrived connection with the one who was ill.

Propagated epidemic

It is an infectious disease where the infectious agent will spread from a person to a different person. The very best examples are polio and hepatitis A. There's a steep rise or fall within the epidemic over a while.

The transmission of disease would spread before the people who are vulnerable to it are reduced. The rate where this kind of epidemic would spread relies on the immunity power the individual or even the times at which they are available in connection with the infected.

Mixed epidemic

It is the epidemic that has the traits of both propagated and common source epidemics. The epidemic will begin at a common source and would stick to the propagated spread. The most common mixed type of epidemics could be due to foodborne infections.

Best examples of epidemic diseases

The third cholera

The period by which this disease claimed the lives of many is from 1852 to 1860. It is a waterborne ailment that is spread through bacteria. It's the third-largest outbreak globally and was were only available in India and spread around India.

Asian flu

This epidemic disease was attacked in 1957 and claimed the lives of many people in China.

SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)

SARS attacked in 2003 and it is a respiratory system infection that's caused due to the coronavirus. It's found to be transferred from animals to humans. It took a toll on the lives of many people.


Many individuals are vulnerable to this disease in 2023. It is a horrifying virus that would lead to fever, diarrhea, and fever. This ailment is spread from wildlife and it is fatal to the population.


HIV may be the disease that is claiming the lives of many people until today. It was were only available in 1960. It's spread to humans from chimpanzees. The virus would have a toll around the immune power the body. There are around 25 million people who are lost for this disease.

Lassa fever

Though the death rate of the disease is 1%, 1 out of 5 people is infected with this ailment. It is caused as a result of virus that can take a toll around the organs. You will find 80% of people that are have contracted this disease showed no the signs of it.

Nipah virus

It claimed the lives of humans and animals and identified in 1998. However, there isn't any treatment open to diagnose patients who are susceptible to this virus.

Rift valley virus

Though it affects animals, the signs and symptoms of this virus observed in humans. The virus would live in your body for 7 days. There are just some people who're severely impacted by herpes.